Critically examine the Congress Ministries of 1937. How far it is correct to suggest that it paved the way to Separate Muslim Homeland in India?
Pakistan is neither accidental nor natural creation. It is result of years of struggle, sacrifices and human endeavor. History reflects the fact that, various political events played the vital role in this regard. Beginning from the Partition of Bengal in 1905 to the adoption of Pakistan Resolution in 1940; these are actually political realities which established Pakistan and the Congress Ministries – 1937 is one among such realities. The Congress Ministries in fact, proved to be the last nail in coffin of the United India under British Raj. It was the unholy and unpopular rule of Congress Ministries that finally convinced Jinnah and his fellow Muslims of Sub Continent to lay the foundation of a separate Muslim Homeland.
What is meant by the Congress Ministries?
British Raj introduced the new Indian Constitution in 1935 promising the Indians with bit is a more share in internal rule. The new constitution led the Indians towards fresh elections for constituting a government. The election was chiefly contested by the Muslim League and Congress. As of results, Congress sought huge majority and moved to form the government of India. Congress nominated Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister of India. He assumed office and framed his cabinet. The new government, informally known as Congress Ministries, ruled over internal affairs of India from 1937 to 1939.
How Congress Ministries Paved Way towards Muslim Homeland?
Congress Ministries rule provided a number of reasons for the establishment of the Separate Muslim Homeland. It can be better assessed from following points:
1. Congress Ministries Rule was Reflection of Hindutva
Congress presented itself to be a liberal and secular party. It might have been correct at some point of time but not always. At different political events, Congress was in the grip of Hindu Nationalists whose aim was promotion and propagation of Hindu ideology and culture. Congress Ministries were dominated by similar fanatics. The Ministries managed to distort Muslim culture and ideology by:
- Promoting Hindu mindset in educational institutions
- Forcing young Muslims to salute ‘Indian three-colored flag’
- Usurping the political and cultural Rights of the Muslim Community
- Breeding sense of communalism in India
- Suppressing Muslim nation into nothing but only a minority
- Ensuring political victimization of Muslim League as its top political and ideological rival
2. Muslims of India realized their Mistake of Bringing Congress in Power
When Muslim League contested elections, it did not enjoy the political support of all Muslim Community of India. Portions of it made mistake of supporting Congress and other political factions. They began to realize their political blunder soon after Congress took power and started targeting Muslim identity, culture and political rights. This realization of mistake played important role in paving the way towards new Muslim Homeland in India.
3. Congress Ministries left no Alternative for Muslims
Congress Ministries left for Muslims of India no choice but a demand for Separate Muslim Homeland. Prior to the Ministries Rule, there was never complete consensus in the ranks of Muslim League over the demand of Separate Homeland. The consensus, however, emerged soon after the Congress Ministries collapsed in 1939. Just a year later, Muslims gathered in Lahore’s Minto Park and passed the Resolution of Pakistan under the leadership of Jinnah. Not only that but, the day Congress Ministries collapsed, Muslim League celebrated it as ‘Day of Deliverance’.
Muslims of India never abruptly demanded for a separate homeland. It took years for them to understand and realize that their future is bleak in India unless they establish their own political state. Many events played role in this regard and Congress Ministries in no exception to this reality.