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Political Science → Plato’s Philosophy of Education
Education and Communism
Education and Communism are two aspects in Plato’s work which will help in determining the capacity of individuals to work. Plato criticized Athenian education system which was privately owned, inadequate and providing nothing for women’s learning. Plato proposes two-way education scheme: first, elementary training for citizens up to the age of 18; later, two years period of military training. Elementary education is to be based on Gymnastics and Music – for the growth of physique and literature. Second phase is advanced studying. Beginning at the age of 20, it will last for next 15 years. In first ten years, mathematics should be taught. In next 5 years, dialectic or philosophy shall be instructed. Those completing all at age of 35 shall be allotted military and civil administration services. At the age of 50, distinguished ones shall join guardians – a class endeavoring to preserve just community.
A novel feature of Republic is communism in upper class to maintain status quo. Unlike Marx’s communism, that of Plato was political or moral not economic. Plato thought property causing conflict among people. Once private property is abolished, ideal state will seek balance. In terms of family, he discouraged marriage between men and women of ruling and military class. Breeding from the best possible stock was to be regulated and offspring to be controlled by unions. Abortion, infanticide and neglect of the unfit were recommended. Women are to be compelled to perform in state life. Plato destroys individualism.