Shah Waliullah

At the dawn of 18th century the socio-political conditions of the Muslims were miserable and pathetic. With the demise of Alamgir in 1707, the enviable fabric of the Mughal Empire started crumbling. The imminent political downfall was a matter of serious concern for the scholars of the time who could understand the glory of Muslim rule in Sub-Continent. In this time Shah Waliullah took the responsibility to save the Muslims from the political annihilation and religious degeneration.


Alien Practices Corrupting Islamic Culture
Shah was a reformer possessing a balanced and fair minded approach towards religion. He made an exhaustive endeavor in order to eradicate the menace of un-Islamic rituals that were corrupting the culture of Muslim society. The absurd practices of Hindu community were being merged in the sound and simple lives of the Muslims. Perhaps, it was the legacy of Akbar’s notorious Deen-e-Elahi and his deep rooted affection with the Hindus. In order to cope this misadventure, Wali took the path of preaching with the power of his writings. He wrote 51 important books for the general guidance of the Muslims and infusing the spirit of true religion again in them. ‘Taffhimat-e-Elahi’ and ‘Hujjyulla-al-Baligha’ are the books worth mentioning in this regard.

Derailed Religious Scholars Indulged in Sharpening Sects
Second, the strange innovations being made in the religion by the mullahs divided in various sects and interested in polishing their own workshops were annoying for Wali. The debate of ‘Sufi and Wali’ derailed the Muslims from the original path. Even in here, Shah preferred to teach the Muslims what their religion is actually about. In order to assuage the differences among them he wrote a renowned book, ‘Al Bayan Fi Sabab al Ikhtilaf’.

Not only was this but the idea of ‘Wahdat-ul-Wajood’, nothing less than an attack to root out Islamic principles from India. The propagation of amounting the creator and the creation as one was in fact favorably advocating the Hindu practice of worshiping idols. Wali stood against this idea and presented the factual idea of ‘Wahdat ul Shuhood’. He solemnly rejected the assumption of equalizing the creation and the creator. He asserted in the oneness of Allah Almighty as the creator of the whole universe.

Translation of Holy Quran in Lingua Franca of the Muslims
Persian, the lingua franca of the Muslims of Sub-Continent was utilized by Wali in order to translate the Holy Quran. This was his effort to bring the Muslims to learn what actually Quran has told and what they were doing. Learning Quran in their own language.

In nutshell, his religious preaching was a magnificent step to secure the coming posterities from being prey to the Hindu culture, to make the Muslims stick to what Quran reveals upon them and to prohibit the religious scholars from bringing the laymen to plunge into the architectured sects.


Dream of a Separate Homeland Solely for Muslims
Though, Wali is known for his role in religious filed but it cannot fog his active participation in securing the political future of the Muslims amid the anticipated fall of Muslim rule in India. After having assessed the priorities of rulers of the time, Shah could see the clashes of civilizations in India in the coming years. And it happened; Hindus and the Muslims fought in every field of life in the years which later colored the pages of future history.

Smelling these fears, Shah proposed the idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims irrespective of its size but what mattered him the most was its need in order to provide an Islamic environment to the Muslims free from Hindu interference. Thus, it can be safely assumed that Shah was one of the early founders of two nation theory, the rationale which led to the creation of Pakistan.

Shah’s Formula for Dashing Down the Anticipated Threats to Muslim Rule in India
Shah was the reformer who dared to point out the three major threats to the Muslims of Sub-Continent and his prediction proved to be right in the years to come. According to him; ‘Jatts of Delhi and Agra, Marhattas of the Southern India and Sikhs of the Punjab’ were one to have unsheathed their swords against the Muslims. In order to avert this imminent attack on the fragile politics of the Muslims, he wrote to the Muslim big shots of time like Ahmad Shah Abdali and Nawab Sujjah-ud-Daulah inciting them to wage holy wars against the enemies of Muslim rule in India. His letters worked and the power of Marhattas prepared to root out Muslim rule was dashed to the ground of Pani Patt in the history’s third ferocious combat there in 1761. Thus, Shah being circumspect played a wise political move to protect the Muslim political rule for India. Even after this success, the custom of waging holy wars against the enemies of Muslims was kept alive by Syed Ahmad Shaheed and his comrades.