United Nations Organization (UNO)
After the end of World War I (WWI) which lasted from 1914 to 1918, The League of Nations (LN) was formed on January 10, 1920. Its mission was to maintain world peace. But League of Nations was failed in preventing World War II (WWII) which lasted from 1939 to 1945. After the end of World War II the United Nations Organization (UNO) was founded on October 24, 1945 to replace the flawed League of Nations. Its principal mission is to maintain world peace, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
United Nation's principal organs
The United Nations have five principal organs:
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
The 6th organ, "Trusteeship Council" suspended operation on November 01, 1994, with the independence of Palau.
United Nation's Agencies
UNO has also 15 agencies and several programs and bodies to carry out its mission world wide. The prominent agencies are: World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Program (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).
United Nation's Languages
UNO has 6 official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
There are 193 member states of the United Nations. In addition to this, two countries hold the status of Observer States. Currently there are only two observer states:
1. Holy See (The permanent observer state of UNO)
Observer State is a status granted by a United Nations General Assembly resolution before granted them full membership.
United Nations Key Facts
- Secretary General UNO is Antonio Guterres of Portugal since January 1, 2017. The Secretary General is elected for a period of 5 years
- UNO was founded on October 24, 1945
- The motto of UNO is "It's your world!"
- The Headquarter of UNO is in New York, USA
With other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.
- The UN General Assembly adopts the budget
- The UN General Assembly, on proposal of the Security Council, elects the UN Secretary General, decides on the admission of new members, elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council, all members of Economic and Social Council, and the 15 judges of the International Court of Justice
- The UN Security Council is the most powerful organ, and is responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security
- UN Security Council has a total of 15 members: 5 permanent and 10 elected members
- The 5 permanent members of UN Security Council are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries hold veto power
- The 10 non-permanent members of UN Security Council are elected by the UN General Assembly for a period of 2 years. Currently the non-permanent members are: Bolivia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Senegal, Sweden, Ukraine and Uruguay.
- UN Secretariat headed by Secretary General, supports the other UN bodies administratively
- UN Economic and Social Council is responsible for cooperation between states on economic and social fields
- The International Court of Justice has 15 judges elected for a period of 9 years. The ICJ is located in The Hague, Holland